Java's original development team gave their project the code name "Oak." Later, speculation suggested that the name JAVA is a derivative of the founders' first names, James Gosling, Arthur Van Hoff and Andy Bechtolsheim. Originally, the plan was for a lightweight web browser, HotJava, introduced in 1995, but later became a programming language for multiple uses, according to the official Java website and the book "Beyond the Basics," published by the Virginia Tech Computer Science Labs. However, the compactness and lightweight cross platform technologies of Java have expanded the original use and intent of Java.
Applications are programs with complex user interfaces, database connections, network access and specific platform dependencies. Applets, or more specifically, Java applets are mini applications that are more simplistic in use yet complex in nature, and like applications require code to be compiled in a specific manner. Applets can run as standalone programs. As mini applications, Java applets run completely independently from a web page, but are typically called inside of a web page for specific functionality.