How Do Cell Phone Transmissions & Signals Work?
By Milton Kazmeyer
Cell phones have become commonplace communication tools in modern society, with some users even replacing their landlines with the portable phones. Though modern cell phones feature a wide variety of different add-ons and functions, at the heart of the technology is a simple two-way radio system. The infrastructure that manages and encrypts this two-way communication is what makes cellular telephony the successful communication technology it is today.
The heart of the cell phone system is the cell tower. Providers use a network of these low-power antennas spread throughout the coverage area to provide service to subscribers. Each tower handles a roughly hexagonal area a few miles across, picking up signals from cell phones and connecting them to the landline telephone network. Each tower also maintains connections with the surrounding towers, allowing the system to seamlessly hand calls off from tower to tower as cell phone users travel through the coverage area.
Each cell tower handles signals across a specific subset of the broadcast spectrum. Early cell phones would take up two entire frequencies for a single conversation, but as the number of users grew, providers had to find new ways to cram more signals into the available spectrum. Using low-power transmitters allows the system to reuse frequencies, since two towers several miles apart cannot interfere with each other’s signals. Other frequency-sharing technology involves broadcasting in short, regimented pulses, leaving the frequency free for other users in between bursts. Digital encryption technology helps ensure that conversations remain separate and private, preventing others from listening in.
When you turn on your cell phone, the device begins searching for certain key frequencies the network uses for identification purposes. If it can connect to a tower on one of these frequencies, it sends a unique identifying number to the network, letting the system know your phone’s status and its current location. Once connected, your phone will continue to monitor this carrier frequency for incoming calls, and will use it to signal an outgoing call should you need to make one.
Making and Receiving Calls
If your phone receives a call, the system will route the connection to the tower nearest you and send a notification on the carrier frequency that causes your phone to ring. If you make a call, the system takes the outgoing number and routes the call through the landline telephone system, reaching the physical telephone line or appropriate cellular tower on the other end. Once connected, both phone and tower encrypt audio data digitally, sending these packets through the air on the chosen frequencies. Modern phones may monitor many different frequencies at once, allowing the system to adapt to congestion or interference by switching to clearer channels, ensuring a solid connection even under adverse circumstances.
Milton Kazmeyer has worked in the insurance, financial and manufacturing fields and also served as a federal contractor. He began his writing career in 2007 and now works full-time as a writer and transcriptionist. His primary fields of expertise include computers, astronomy, alternative energy sources and the environment.